National Research Council of Italy

Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources

Polymorphism of high Mr glutenin subunits in wild emmer Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides: chromatographic, electrophoretic separations and PCR analysis of their encoding genes

Margiotta B, Colaprico G, Urbano M

Genetic resources and crop evolution 61 (2): 331-343.
doi: 10.1007/s10722-013-0037-6

Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. et Graebn.) Thell. (AABB), the immediate progenitor of tetraploid and hexaploid wheats, is a species characterised by a wide range of protein polymorphism and by high protein content. Surveys on polymorphism and genetic control of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) present in this species, in two forms x- and y-type at the Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, are still considered useful, both to improve technological properties of breeding varieties and to study the genome evolutionary process in wheats. Comparative Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic and Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic analyses (SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC) of the HMW-GS present in several accessions of T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides allowed the detection of new alleles of Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, with x- and y-type glutenin subunits, apparently similar to those present in cultivated wheats in molecular weight, but different in surface hydrophobicity. In addition, changes in the number of x- and y-type subunits at the glutenin loci were also ascertained. The y-type subunits at the Glu-A1 locus, which are never expressed in cultivated bread and durum wheats, and single y-type expressed glutenin subunits at the Glu-B1 locus were also identified in several accessions. DNA extracted from samples, differing in number or type of HMW-GS and corresponding to x- and y-type genes at Glu-1 loci, were amplified using specific primers, two of which were constructed within the transposon-like sequence of Chinese Spring DNA and analysed by polymerase chain reaction. The results showed this insertion in some accessions of T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides and also the presence of silent Ax, Bx and By type genes. The usefulness for breeding of these comparative analyses carried out on different HMW-GS alleles detected in Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides, is discussed.

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